Clear Fog Blog

Political musings from Warren E. Peterson

Airplane vs An Earthquake

Posted by Warren Peterson on March 28, 2011

Thanks to D. F. for alerting me to the below story.

Among all the things one thinks about when an earthquake strikes, landing airplanes is not one of them. Where do you land a passenger jet approaching Tokyo when the runways are moving and a tsunami is racing to shore? Below, a Delta Airlines’ pilot tells his story in just such a situation:

“I’m writing from my room in the Narita crew hotel. It’s 8am. This was my inaugural trans-pacific trip as a new, recently checked out, international 767 Captain & it has been interesting, to say the least. I’ve crossed the Atlantic three times so the ocean crossing procedures were familiar. By the way, stunning scenery flying over the Aleutian Islands.

Everything was going fine until 100 miles out of Tokyo and in descent for arrival. The first indication of trouble was when Japan air traffic control started putting everyone into holding patterns. At first we thought it was the usual congestion on arrival. Then we got a company data link message advising about the earthquake, followed by another stating Narita airport was temporarily closed for inspection and expected to open shortly (the company is always so positive).

From our perspective things were obviously looking a little different. The Japanese controller’s anxiety level seemed quite high when he said expect “indefinite” holding time. No one would commit to a holding time like that, so I got the copilot and relief pilot busy looking at divert stations and our fuel situation, which after an ocean crossing, is typically low.

It wasn’t long, maybe ten minutes, before other pilots started requesting diversions. Air Canada, American, United, etc. all reporting minimal fuel. I still had enough fuel for 1.5 to 2.0 hours of holding, but needless to say, the diverts started complicating the situation.

Japan air traffic control then announced Narita was closed indefinitely due to damage. Planes immediately started requesting arrivals into Haneada, near Tokyo. A half dozen JAL and western planes got clearance in that direction but then ATC announced Haenada had just closed. Uh oh! Now instead of just holding, we all had to start looking at more distant alternatives like Osaka, or Nagoya.

One bad thing about a large airliner is that you can’t just pop into any little airport. We need lots of runway. With more planes piling in from both east and west, all needing a place to land and several now fuel critical, ATC was getting over-whelmed. In the scramble, and without waiting for my fuel to get critical, I got a clearance to head for Nagoya – fuel situation still okay. So far so good.

A few minutes later, I was “ordered” by ATC to reverse course. Nagoya was saturated with traffic and unable to handle more planes (read- airport full). Ditto for Osaka.

With that, my situation went instantly from fuel okay, to fuel minimal considering we might have to divert a much farther distance. Multiply my situation by a dozen other aircraft all in the same boat, all making demands requests and threats to ATC for clearances. Air Canada and then someone else went to “emergency” fuel situation. Planes started heading for air force bases. The nearest to Tokyo was Yokoda AFB. I threw my hat in the ring for that. The answer, Yokoda closed.

By now it was becoming a three ring circus in the cockpit, my copilot on the radios, me flying and the relief copilot buried in the charts trying to figure out where to go that was within range, while data link messages were flying back and forth between us and company dispatch in Atlanta. I picked Misawa AFB at the north end of Honshu island. We could get there with minimal fuel remaining. ATC was happy to get rid of us so we cleared out of the Tokyo maelstrom. We heard ATC try to send planes toward Sendai, a small regional airport on the coast which was later the one I think that got flooded by a tsunami.

Atlanta dispatch then sent us a message asking if we could continue to Chitose airport on the Island of Hokkaido, north of Honshu. Other Delta planes were heading that way. More scrambling in the cockpit – check weather, check charts, check fuel – okay. We could still make it and not be going into a fuel critical situation … if we had no other fuel delays.

As we approached Misawa we got clearance to continue to Chitose. Critical decision thought process. Let’s see – trying to help company – plane overflies perfectly good divert airport for one farther away…wonder how that will look in the safety report, if anything goes wrong.

Suddenly ATC comes up and gives us a vector to a fix well short of Chitose and tells us to standby for holding instructions. Nightmare realized. Situation deteriorating rapidly. After initially holding near Tokyo, starting a divert to Nagoya, reversing course back to Tokyo then to re-diverting north toward Misawa, all that happy fuel reserve that I had was vaporizing fast. My subsequent conversation, paraphrased of course…., went something like this:

“Sapparo Control – Delta XX requesting immediate clearance direct to Chitose, minimum fuel, unable hold.”
“Negative Ghost-Rider, the Pattern is full” <enter top gun quote here<
"Sapparo Control – make that –
Delta XX declaring emergency, low fuel, proceeding direct Chitose"
"Roger Delta XX, understood, you are cleared direct to Chitose, contact Chitose approach….etc…."

Enough was enough, I had decided to preempt actually running critically low on fuel while in another indefinite holding pattern, especially after bypassing Misawa, and play my last ace…declaring an emergency. The problem with that is, now I have a bit of company paperwork to do, but what the heck.

We landed Chitose safely, with at least 30 minutes of fuel remaining before reaching a "true" fuel emergency situation. That's always a good feeling – being safe. They taxied us off to a remote parking area where we shut down and watched a half dozen or more other planes come streaming in. In the end, Delta had two 747s, my 767 and another 767 and a 777 all on the ramp at Chitose. We saw two American airlines planes, a United and two Air Canada as well. Not to mention several Al Nippon and Japan Air Lines planes.

Post-script – 9 hours later, Japan air lines finally got a boarding ladder to the plane where we were able to get off and clear customs. – that however, is another interesting story.

By the way, while writing this, I have felt four additional tremors that shook the hotel slightly – all in 45 minutes.”

The above story is recounted on numerous web sites. Here is one: Landing During an Earthquake

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